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At about the same time, several experiments led physicists to realize that the classical ideas also didn't apply to very small objects, such as atoms. In the early 1980s, string theory was riddled with mathematical anomalies kind of like these, although the equations were much more complex. In quantum mechanics, the quantum of action is the Planck constant, usually denoted as h. Probabilities are needed in quantum theory because in no other way can one make sense of the same entity being both a wave and a particle.

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The latter one refers to the measurement problem. They just could not figure out how the frequencies were determined. In the year 1900 several scientists were trying to turn these observations into a detailed explanation of and a quantitatively accurate formula for the color of heat radiation as a function of temperature. The Development of the Space-Time View of Quantum Electrodynamics (Nobel lecture). When the intensity of violet light increases, more electrons are emitted, but they do not gain more energy.

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Our knowledge of the laws of physics rules them out. Senior Lecturer in the School of Physics, University of Sydney Dr. Ai> and the Ai are the chosen basis vectors. We have seen in the previous chapter that the properties of refraction, diffraction, and interference all require a wave picture of light. The universe’s mind-bending strangeness is part of its charm, however. Among all physics bloggers, you are the only one who has discussed the most important issue of physics, “What is the ultimate nature of reality (if any)?” The basic of atheism is of against the concepts of ‘supernatural (being)’ and the ‘design’ of the universe.

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In that case, nothing remains of my entire castle in the air, gravitation theory included, [and of] the rest of modern physics. (Albert Einstein, 1954) The quanta really are a hopeless mess. This idea introduced the particle nature of light. The first lectures here review undergraduate quantum and modern physics as a reminder, this optional material was only covered briefly in class. When we observe a quantum event, however, quantum theory points out that each quantum event is a discrete happening, utterly unique, distinct and separate from all other quantum events.

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It is my opinion that the contemporary quantum theory represents an optimal formulation of the relationships, given certain fixed basic concepts, which by and large have been taken from classical mechanics. Remember, it explains the de Broglie wavelength and thereby QM. Unlike the Copenhagen interpretation, which assumes the continuous existence of elementary particles, this interpretation considers such particles to be ensembles of their related dot events connected by probabilities.

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There is growing interest concerning the possibility of tapping zero-point energy and many claims exist of ''over unity devices'' (gadgets yielding a greater output than the required input for operation) driven by zero-point energy. Let’s keep the radioactive atom with us on Earth, while we send the cat far far away, in some distant galaxy. Freeman Dyson Anybody who's not bothered by Bell's theorem has to have rocks in his head.

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The measurement operation has the effect of collapsing the wave to one of its two lobes with a probability determined by the magnitude of the two lobes. (In the figure, the two lobes are of equal magnitude, so collapse to each is equally probable.) How do we get two lobes like this? In 1859 Gustav Kirchhoff proved a theorem about blackbody radiation. In 1905, Einstein proposed that the radiation itself is also quantized according to this same formula, and he used the new theory to explain the photoelectric effect.

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Just as the traditional axiom of measurement says that measurements of observables (quantities that commute with the Hamiltonian) can only yield eigenvalues, information physics accepts that the quantities of information added correspond to these eigenvalues. The character of Y2 then depends upon what kind of measurement I undertake on S1.... Initial conditions are also, by their very nature ‘arbitrary’, hence beyond explanation by a theory of everything, hence objectionable to Hawking.

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General relativity works beautifully for gravitational forces in the Universe, successfully predicting the existence of such outlandish objects as black holes. We joined the University of Glasgow in September 2013. One way to better understand this is to remember the dreamlike nature that quantum physics is continually reflecting. We share a common concern, because we are amazed that a surprising large number of seemingly intelligent people are believing the silly quantum flapdoodle being peddled by the evangelists of quantum mysticism.

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Deutsch, one of the world's leading theoretical physicists, a distinguished fellow of the British Computer Society and champion of what must certainly be the strangest scientific worldview ever created, is something of a recluse. But it was not a solution which one could easily accept. Just as surprising as the apparent ethereal qualities of matter is the fact that it is the observer who brings the possibilities of the micro-world into existence.